Pour the beans into a large dutch oven and sort through them to remove any pebbles or debris. Fill the pot with enough water to cover the beans by about two inches. Put the lid on the pot and set aside for 8 hours or overnight. Drain the water from the beans and refill the pot with fresh water - again, so that it is about 2 inches above the reconstituted beans. Add two bay leaves to the pot and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to a simmer, cover and cook for 45-50 minutes on a low simmer. Turn off the heat and let the beans sit in the pot, covered.
Meanwhile, over medium high heat add the olive oil to a large skillet. When the oil is hot, add the sausage and break apart with the back of a spoon or fork to brown the meat. Add the carrots and onions and cook for 3-5 minutes until the vegetables begin to soften. Stir in the garlic, red pepper flakes and rosemary and cook another 2-3 minutes until very fragrant.
Transfer the sausage mixture to the beans. Add the bundle of thyme and stir to combine. Heat the pot to boiling and reduce to a simmer, cooking for another 30-40 minutes. Until the beans are quite tender.
Just before serving, stir in the escarole and cook until it wilts, 3-5 minutes. Ladle into bowls and serve with a sprinkle of parmesan cheese.